Governance, Risk and Compliance: The non-technical side of Cybersecurity

Let's explore the non-technical side of cybersecurity and its importance in the tech industry.

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Cybersecurity is often dominated by sophisticated hacks, advanced technology, and complex coding. A fundamental aspect, however, operates largely in the shadows -- Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC).

Governance, Risk, and Compliance (GRC) is a way to align IT with business goals and meet regulations while managing risks. GRC follows a structured approach, which means it helps businesses organize and manage their IT systems in a way that is safe and meets all industry and government regulations. It plays a pivotal role in fortifying organizations against the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats.

Understanding the GRC Triad


Governance sets the stage for cybersecurity initiatives within an organization. It involves defining policies, procedures, and frameworks for managing and using technology. Governance ensures that roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes are clearly defined.

At its core, governance is about establishing a culture of security and accountability. Everybody in the organization is involved, not just the top execs. To safeguard the organization's digital assets, everyone needs to align with the security objectives and strategies.


Risk assessment and management are the heartbeat of cybersecurity. Making informed decisions about how to protect critical assets requires understanding the risks an organization faces. The process involves identifying potential risks, evaluating their impact, and figuring out how likely they are to happen.

The goal of risk management is to maximize opportunities and minimize vulnerabilities. It's a proactive approach that helps in identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks so that appropriate security measures can be put in place to mitigate them.


Compliance involves adhering to relevant laws, regulations, standards, and internal policies. This aspect ensures that an organization operates within the legal and ethical boundaries concerning cybersecurity. It's more than just following rules; it's about meeting industry-specific security requirements.

Data handling guidelines and security measures are outlined by compliance frameworks, like GDPR, HIPAA, or PCI DSS. Non-compliance can result in severe penalties, financial losses, and reputational damage.

The Interconnectedness of GRC

The GRC triad is highly interconnected, forming a robust foundation for an organization's cybersecurity posture. Governance sets the framework for decision-making, which directly influences risk assessment and compliance adherence. Meanwhile, risk assessment guides decision-making within the governance structure, determining the appropriate security measures. Compliance, in turn, ensures that the organization follows the rules and regulations set by authorities.

Challenges faced in GRC

1. Human Error

Even the most sophisticated technical defences can be undermined by human error. To reduce the likelihood of mistakes, GRC emphasizes training employees in cybersecurity best practices.

2. Insider Threats

Insiders, whether intentionally or unintentionally, can pose a significant cybersecurity risk. GRC frameworks often include measures to monitor and manage insider threats, such as role-based access control and employee awareness programs.

3. Regulatory Changes

Laws and regulations governing cybersecurity are evolving. Staying compliant can be a challenge, and non-compliance can have severe consequences. GRC programs keep organizations informed about regulatory changes and help them adapt quickly.

4. Third-Party Risk

Many organizations rely on third-party vendors for various services, and these vendors can introduce cybersecurity risks. GRC involves assessing and managing third-party risks, and ensuring vendors meet security standards.


In the digital age, where cyber threats are becoming increasingly sophisticated, Governance, Risk, and Compliance form the bedrock of an organization's ability to withstand and mitigate these challenges. While cutting-edge technologies are essential, they are only as effective as the strategy and governance that govern their usage.

Investing in a robust GRC framework empowers organizations to not only protect their digital assets but also to build trust and confidence among stakeholders. It's a holistic approach that not only considers technology but also addresses the behavioural, cultural, and regulatory aspects of cybersecurity. Balancing this triad ensures that an organization is not only cyber-resilient but also aligned with the broader goals of security, ethics, and legal obligations.